Ijma and Qiyas

Ijma

It is an Arabic word referring to the consensus or agreement of the ummah (the community of the Muslims or followers of Islam) on various Islamic matters that are not determined explicitly by Quran and Hadith. The hadith of Muhammad (PBUH) which states that “My community will never agree upon an error” is often cited as support for the validity of ijmā’. However, there is some ambiguity about the jurists who authorize the Ijma. According to some Muslims only the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) can sanction the Ijma whereas some believe that Ijma can be only b sanctioned by the descendants of Ali and Fatima (RA). Imam Malik argues on the other hand that the Ijma can only be sanctioned by the Jurists of Madinah. Hanifah school of thought argues lastly that the Ijma can be sanctioned by any qualified Jurist regardless of where he lives, or the sect where he belongs.

 
Example of Ijma:

An example of ijma is the punishment for the one who drinks alcohol. This was not specified by Allah (swt) but the sahabah at the time discussed the issue and through the use of Ijama. Sayyidna Ali Bin Abu Talib is reported to have said:
“He, who drinks, gets drunk; he who gets drunk, raves; he who raves accuses people falsely; and he he accuses people falsely should be given eighty strokes of cane according to the injunction of the Holy Quran.

 

Qiyas

Qiyas is analogical reasoning. In this type of juridical procedure the teachings of the Quran are compared and contrasted with those of the Hadith and hence are used as means to solve or provide a response to a problem that may be  arise with changing times. Like Ijma there are many contentions in Qiyas related to different school of thoughts as well. 

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