Importance of Islamic Calendar

Although Muslims follow the Georgian calendar mostly, yet the lunar calendar holds significance importance in their lives because on the affirmation of the beginning of the lunar months relies all those worship that are bound with time (`Ibādāt al-Mu`aqqata). Consequently if a Muslim were to err in specifying the exact time of the beginning of the month, it would result in the worship being made in an inappropriate time. Let’s discuss the ibadah and some important ruling that result that depend on the lunar months.

  1. Fasting in the month of Ramadan

The actual start and end of the month of Ramadan depends on the sighting of the moon. The Prophet said: “Fast when you see the Moon and break your fast when you see the next Moon. But if you cannot see it, then complete the 30th day [of fasting].”

 Allah the Most High says: “The month of Ramadan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it “(Surah al-Baqarah, 2:185)

  1. Zakaat

Zakaat is obligatory on every Muslim when their nisab reaches a certain level i.e. nisab. Zakaat is given after the completion of twelve lunar months i.e. in the month of Ramadan.

  1. Hajj

The pilgrimage occurs during three well-known last three months of the Islamic year i.e. Shawwāl, Dhil Qa’dah and Dhil Ḥijjah.  Allah the Most High says: “The Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Ḥajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of Iḥrām], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj.” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2: 197)

  1. Fasting for kaffara (Expiation)

The fasting for kaffara is done for two consecutive months. Allah the Most High says: “A fast for two months consecutively” (Surah an-Nisā, 4:92)

  1. Duration of a Mourning widow (Iddah)

The literal meaning of Iddah is to keep count. In Islamic legal terminology, it is the period after her husband’s demise, in which the woman has been instructed to refrain from getting married again. According to the directives of Allah SWT “And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:234)

 

The above makes clear the importance of the lunar months as on it depends the rulings of three pillars of Islam namely Fasting, Zakaat and Hajj and other important rulings, in the life of a Muslim.

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